Local Authorities – Busy Enough In The Battle For Ireland’s Bees?

The annual Biodiversity and Councils’ All-Ireland Pollinator conference put the spotlight on local authorities’ vital role in protecting threatened pollinators, writes Ellie O’Byrne

One-third of Ireland’s bee species now face extinction. Habitat loss, pesticide use, and dwindling biodiversity are decimating our 20 native species of bumblebee and 77 species of wild solitary bee.

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Councils can lead the battle to save pollinators. That was the message at Cork’s recent Biodiversity and Councils’ All-Ireland Pollinator Plan conference.

While gardeners, farmers, businesses, and community groups play a role in reversing the fate of Ireland’s bee species, local authorities, who manage large tracts of public land, must change their land management practices to help the insects on which we rely for our food crops.

Representatives from city and county councils nationwide attended the day-long conference of talks on strategies to help declining bee species. Topics included cultivating wildflower meadows, reducing the use of pesticides, and planting pollinator-friendly flowers in public parks.

Dr Úna Fitzpatrick is a senior ecologist at the National Biodiversity Data Centre and one of the forces behind the All-Ireland Pollinator Plan, 2015-2020.

As the country-wide action plan reaches the end of its five-year term, Dr Fitzpatrick said things are still “pretty dire” for Ireland’s 97 bee species. “Between 2012 and 2018, species were still in decline,” she said.

However, it could be 2025 or even 2030 before the All-Ireland Pollinator Plan has an impact and before threatened pollinators show signs of a recovery, Dr Fitzgerald said.

Many Irish people feel local and national government isn’t putting pollinators first.

Some 88% of Irish people said the Government isn’t working hard enough to save bees, according to a survey conducted by the All-Ireland Pollinator plan last year. And 72% want more educational measures, 69% want government bodies to stop using pesticides, and 63% want more pollinator-friendly planting in parks.

On the All-Ireland Pollinator Plan’s interactive map, even school children are out-performing local authorities: Irish councils have recorded 80 actions to protect bees since the All-Ireland Pollinator Plan was launched in 2015. But schools have recorded 91.

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Community groups, including Tidy Towns committees, have recorded 312 actions and there have been 218 actions from gardens.

Now, just one year from the end of the five-year plan, local authorities are signing up to a framework agreement launched in March, in a bid by the All-Ireland Pollinator Plan to improve uptake from councils. Dr Fitzpatrick said the response from councils has been “really positive”.

The agreement calls on local authorities to take one pollinator-promoting action within the first year, to make a record of the actions they are taking, and to provide an annual report.

Of Ireland’s 31 local authorities, six have so far signed up.

In Munster, Limerick, and Waterford, councils have signed the framework agreement. Cork City and County Councils, which sponsored the biodiversity and councils conference, have yet to sign up. Dr Fitzpatrick said that talks are ongoing, and that she expects a framework agreement “soon”.

Dun Laoghaire Rathdown Co Council (DLRCC) has radically overhauled its land management, in response to the pollinator crisis; in 2018, they eliminated chemical use on public lands, apart from invasive species control, and now use hot-water machines for weed control.

They have also changed their verge-cutting and management of public land. This is to allow to flower plants that are needed as a food source by bees.

But DLRCC biodiversity manager, Anne Murray, said the public need to be educated and that she has received complaints that the council is not doing its job.

Weeding out out-dated mentalities is an important aspect of the pollinator plan, Ms Murray, and several other speakers, emphasised: instead of seeing flowering plants, like dandelions, as weeds to be eradicated, the public must see these plants as a vital seasonal food source for bees.

Ms Murray has heard complaints from elderly residents who perceive long grass as untidy: one complainant said they thought that the long grass would encourage drug dealers into the area. “People think we’re not managing sites, because they think we’re trying to save money or reduce our workload,” she said.

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In fact, it’s more expensive to manage public land for pollinators: Ms Murray said regular maintenance costs €84 per hectare annually, but up to €140 per hectare when land is managed for pollinators, mostly caused by composting costs.

Trinity College botanist, Dr Jane Stout, has a stark warning for councils about use of pesticides, including neonicotinoids, a group of systemic insecticides that are known bee-killers, and glyphosate, the herbicide shown last year to damage bees’ health and navigation abilities.

Farmers may get a bad rap for their use of pesticides, but traditionally managed lawns and green spaces can bear up to 10 times the pesticide burden of agricultural land, according to US biodiversity group The Audubon Society.

Dr Stout said that while the use of pesticides on agricultural land is measured, we have no way of knowing the quantity of pesticides used on local authority lands, and that the full impact of pesticides on pollinators, which are a “flagship for biodiversity”, is not yet fully understood.

Some 77% of Irish honey samples were found to contain traces of pesticides in a recent study, Dr Stout said, proving that insecticides, herbicides, and fungicides are contaminating pollinators’ food chain.

“Outside of agricultural settings, we don’t know how much is being used,” she said.

“It seems prudent, given that we don’t know the impacts of these pesticides, to seek alternatives and to change perception.”

Reduce, rethink, and replace pesticides with something less-damaging, Dr Stout says.

(Source – Irish Examiner – Viewpoint – Ellie O Byrne – 17/04/2019)

Bumbles Disperse To Spread The Seed Far Away

Precious bumblebees have been on the wing since January, perhaps courtesy of climate change. Only females survive the winter.

Awakening from hibernation, each must find a place to nest and to lay eggs that will hatch into infertile workers. These will help her build a colony. But how does she house-hunt? Do bumblebees set up home locally or head for pastures new?

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At Queen Mary University London, James Makinson and his colleagues fitted tiny radar antennas to the backs of captive bumblebees. When the bees emerged from their winter sleep, they were released to the wild at a research site in Hertfordshire.

Birds and mammals have a ‘gold-rush’ mentality; a ‘first come, first served’ approach. It was thought that bumblebees did likewise, opportunistically grabbing the best seats, the weaker ones losing out. But, the Queen Mary research shows otherwise.

The experimental bumbles, newly emerged from hibernation, spent most of their time hiding in vegetation on the ground. Two or three times an hour, they made furtive flights of ten to twenty seconds duration, before going to ground again.

Although they have internal compasses that allow them to fly in straight lines, the bees did not travel in a particular direction, nor did they return to their natal sites. Short flights, made over several weeks, would eventually carry them several kilometres from their origins.

Could artificial rearing, and carrying antennas on their backs, explain this odd behaviour? No, the researchers say. Tracking wild bumbles showed that they behave in the same way as the domesticated ones. So, why do bees do this?

After the long winter sleep, bees need rest and recreation to regain their strength and develop their ovaries. There are advantages, also, to locating colonies well away from the natal ones; young queens can distribute themselves more evenly throughout the countryside. Creatures which disperse, like the Portuguese navigators of old, discover new areas to exploit and avoid competition for dwindling resources at home.

Establishing colonies in virgin territory might offer pioneers better breeding prospects. Genetic analyses show that bee colonies can be established far from a queen’s origins. Bumblebees imported to Chile moved up to 200km in a year.

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Going elsewhere also helps avoid ‘consanguinity’; a wanderer is less likely to mate with a close relative. Young male mammals avoid incest by moving away from where they were born, while their sisters tend to remain closer to home. Birds adopt a similar strategy, although the roles are usually reversed: females disperse, while their brothers stick around.

Male swallows return to the same barn year after year; their sisters and daughters set up home some distance away. A queen bee will have been fertilised prior to hibernation, but dispersal fosters genetic diversity among her later descendants. Our bees are in trouble and need help.

These findings, the researchers claim, “suggest practices that may be valuable for conservation efforts … friendly corridors between conserved landscape catches could be beneficial. It may also be helpful to leave vegetation, such as leaf litter and long grass, undisturbed until late in the spring, giving queen bumblebees safe places to rest”.

James Makinson, et al. Harmonic radar tracking reveals random dispersal pattern of bumblebee queens after hibernation. Scientific Reports. 2019.

(Source – Irish Examiner – Viewpoint – Richard Collins – 08/04/2019)

 

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